The Penguins are going to the Stanley Cup finals!
Sex offenders are the modern witches. There are so many things that rankle when it comes to society’s increased crackdown on sex offenders and their subsequent treatment, but one that never fails to get to me is their ridiculously unfair treatment on probation.
True, there are some that need the intense supervision, that should not be permitted to intermingle with society, but those with the highest risk are the fewest in number.
Nuance in treatment, however, doesn’t seem to exist. So the heavy chains of probationary conditions apply to all “sex offenders” across the board: be it the 19 year old who had sex with his 15 year old girlfriend or the sex offender convicted of inappropriate touching as opposed to the serial rapist.
To begin with, when a pre-sentence investigation report is prepared prior to sentencing, the probation officer is free to replace the results of any evaluation with his/her own “judgment”. I often see reports in which they state that the defendant was evaluated as having a very low risk of re-offending, yet, because in the probation officer’s judgment there were multiple victims, the defendant is actually a medium-to-high risk of re-offending. I’ve seen that recommendation even in cases where the defendant was convicted of assaulting one victim and acquitted of the others. So now we have somenoe with no appropriate training making these judgments and thereby controlling the destiny of a defendant.
When a defendant then starts probation, he is expected to undergo sex offender treatment. It doesn’t matter if he maintains his innocence or if he pled under the Alford doctrine1 [pdf]. If he fails to admit2 [pdf], then he has violated his probation.
So, probations now offers an attractive alternative to defendants: take a polygraph. If they pass, they will not have to admit. If they fail, they must admit.
Polygraph testing is an inexact science and the results are unreliable. The results are open to interpretation and subject to the view of the examiner and are generally inadmissible in CT courts (See State v. Porter, 241 Conn. 57). So while the polygraph examiner on the State’s payroll might say that the defendant failed the polygraph, an independent examiner might well say he passed. However, the State routinely uses the failed polygraph to institute violation of probation proceedings, notwithstanding an otherwise unblemished record on probation.
There is also a split among prosecutors in their reliance on polygraphs (at least that I have seen). Some leave it up to probation to determine whether a defendant is in compliance while others view defendants passing a polygraph and not having to admit as violating probation (because they didn’t actually admit to their crimes).
It doesn’t end there, however. These polygraphers don’t limit their questions to the crime for which the defendant has been convicted. They start asking more general questions: “Have you ever molested someone else?”, “Have you committed another crime for which you haven’t been caught?” There is no Fifth Amendment protection. These questions have been deemed legitimate and the responses can often lead to a violation of probation. Even if the answers to questions about the crime for which the defendant is on probation are deemed “honest”, if the answers to other questions, about other supposed crimes are “deceitful”, then the defendant is written up for failing to pass the polygraph and a warrant issues.
Defendants then come to us to seek advice. There really is nothing we can tell them. “Yes, I know you maintain your innocence. Yes you did not do this. However, they can force you to admit”.
The only option available is to indirectly advise the client to “tell probation what they want to hear”, which, in my opinion, is an untenable option.
While polygraph results may or may not be admissible in a VOP hearing, they certainly can be used by a judge in determining what sentence to impose after a violation is found. The outcome is generally not good.
So the sex offender on probation is essentially screwed. Whether it is registration, residency restrictions or the onerous “treatment” conditions.
I wonder what this does for treatment of sex offenders. I’m sure some of them lie and admit, just to get it over with. Is that what we really want? Is admission of the crime such a necessary part of this “treatment” and why are prosecutors, probation officers and judges so hung up on this admission. If the probationer shows a pattern of non-compliance, then I understand issuing a warrant. If, however, this is the only blemish on an otherwise satisfactory record of compliance, then is it really worth it? Don’t we have enough people in prisons already?
1. State v. Faraday, 268 Conn. 174 (2004). 2. State v. Bruce T., 98 Conn. App. 579 (2006).